(MENAFN - Arab News) Paris: once pilgrims came on camels or on foot in their thousands now millions of muslims make the journey to the makkah each year traveling by boat coach and budget airline and their number is constantly rising.
in the past century new modes of transport and technological advances have transformed the haj.
in 2012 there were over three million pilgrims 1.6 million of whom came by air while the call to prayer is signalled five times daily by the illumination of 21000 green and white lights.
the meaning of the haj however remains unchanged and is explored in a major new exhibition that has just opened in paris through works of art and photography rare manuscripts objets d'art and textiles.
every day items stress the human aspect with identity cards water bottles guide books and souvenirs.
'we go from the very contemporary to pieces that go back 1500 years; the emotions are the same" curator omar saghi told afp adding that the haj was 'present in the heart of all muslims."
the prophet muhammad (peace be upon him) received the first revelations in the early seventh century in makkah and since then the saudi city has taken on the role of spiritual center and the heart of islam.
the pilgrimage is one of the five pillars of islam; the qur'an lays down that it is a sacred duty for all muslims to go on pilgrimage to makkah if they are able at least once in their life.
centuries-old miniatures and sections of elaborate pilgrimage certificates inclued in the exhibition illustrate how the haj has always been a source of inspiration for artists.
more recent works include 'pilgrims going to makkah" by nineteenth century french artist leon belly depicting a column of people on camel and foot as well as contemporary art installations.
an eighteenth-century pen and ink 'map" of the ottoman empire with makkah at its center shows a sparsely populated city surrounding the masjid al-haram (the sacred mosque) that illustrates the changes in scale that have taken place.
today the mosque is the biggest in the world covering an area of 350000 square meters (88 acres).
a large-scale photographic work by ahmed mater a saudi artist shows the mosque as it is today with the foreground filled with cranes bowed over unfinished buildings.
in the background the abraj al-bait towers complex can be seen with the outline of the mountains in the distance.
the largest of its towers known as the makkah royal clock tower is at 601 meters (1970 feet) six times as high as london's big ben.
with its 21000 green and white lights it can be seen from up to 30 kilometers (18 miles) away at night 12 kilometers during daylight hours.
and while the modern world may have encroached the exhibition also shows how the rituals undertaken by pilgrims have remained essentially unchanged.
'haj: journey to the heart of islam" at paris's arab world institute in partnership with the king abdulaziz public library in riyadh runs until august 10.